Say you want to extend a particular class (type) with some new functionality but you can’t access the source code.. or perhaps you can but you don’t want to use inheritance and subtype polimorphism..
Let’s suppose you have the following type that represents an uploaded picture
and you want to return the json representation of it to your clients.
You can do something like this
Then you realize that you need another type, Attachment.
No problem, let’s add another case class to the mix
Now you can serialize to json all of your case classes that extends the Jsonable trait
This all works, but what if you don’t have access to the source code of
Attachment? Is there another way? Maybe more Scala-ish?
Type Classes to the rescue
First and foremost. A Type Class has nothing to do with the concept of class in a typical Object Oriented programming language.
It’s a concept from the Haskell world and it’s used to achieve ad-hoc polymorphism
Type Classes in practice
The first thing to do is define the behavior that you want your classes to have, in this case we want our case classes to be serializable in the json format.
That’s the Type Class.
then we need the Type Class instances for each concrete class we have
we mark them
implicit because we want the compiler to be able to inject the correct implementation into the interface the we are defining next
You can play with the code below
Wouldn’t it better if the method
toJson would be a part of the classes in our domain model but without touching them? Adding the functionality magically from the outside.
I would like to write
toJson were a built-in method of the class.
In Scala you can achieve that using Implicit Classes
You just need to write
This way, when you try to do something like
Picture("mypic", "mypicurl").toJson, the compiler, not finding the
toJson method in the
Picture class, tries to convert
Picture in a
JsonSerializer that has the method you want.
Then it passes as
implicit writer: JsonWriter[T] your Type Class instance that you defined for
You can play with the final code below
With this powerful design pattern we have achieved an impressive result.
We can now add new data or new methods to existing types without changing any existing code.
Moreover, they recently open sourced all their ebooks, you can download all of them for free here, what are you waiting for?
Until next time